Hello. We are going to talk about Land Use Planning Tools, more precisely, urban development operations. So before reviewing the various operations, they serve above all to maintain or welcome new residents and new activities. So it's the objective of the game of an urban operation and also, these urban operations help us to put in facilities and infrastructure. Thirdly, it also serves the purpose of preserving the heritage, or to showcase it. So there are different types of development operations, urban restructuring, urban renovation, housing operations, integrated land use planning operations, major infrastructure projects, and finally, large housing programs. Urban renovation, these are land use planning actions in sectors which are unregulated sectors, on sectors which are extremely deteriorated. The most concrete example is the slum, the restructuring of slums. So in general, the aim is the improvement of living conditions and this goes through a number of things, that may be in particular, real estate, water supply, so the infrastructures and services. It's generally this we're going to work on, real estate, infrastructures and services. Urban renovation is the action of land use planning on a substandard sector, but it's eventually its total or partial destruction in any case and its reconstruction. So, in the renovation, we were working on what was existing, here we destroy it to make something else. Housing or large framework operations, next week, we'll see a whole course series on how to make a subdivision, but it's really urban expansion that we're talking about. On greenfield land, we are going to create a number of subdivisions which are lots where there will be parcels where people will be able to come settle. It's without a doubt the urban operation which is the most current today in African cities. It's the least mediatised. Rather we're going to talk about renovation or urban restructuring, but in terms of number of people who are going to settle, in terms of surface area, these are the subdivisions and the large frameworks which are the majority in African cities. The African city today grows thanks to these subdivisions. And all of the programs which are good things, the restructuring of neighborhoods that are unstable is only a small part of the problem. The big problem, we have had the statistics, this volume of urban people that will come in the next 10 years in the African cities, they will settle in the outskirts, mostly in the subdivisions. So the concern of the subdivision in the African city today is essential. There also exist the districts of special planning. So generally it's when we have a property issue. This is both the State and the property owner who is a private entity who play planner. There is a dialogue between two to put land on the market. It's generally when there are lands which are claimed by the customs who made this type of planning, where a part goes back to customs and another is placed on the market. It's a tool that is known in France, a tool which is not used in all countries and which is relatively little used in Africa. But we need to know that this tool clearly exists and that it's one of the possibilities to do the planning with this strategy. The big infrastructure projects, therefore the most classical, are water electricity, but also transport networks, large transport infrastructures: roads, highways or public transport. This gives the city a superstructure. but the effect on the neighborhoods is quite visible. When you draw a highway in a neighborhood inevitably, we will separate the neighborhood in two. But it's generally projects which are structuring for the city. So the impact of infrastructure is huge, both in macro terms for the whole city, as well as micro terms in the neighborhood. So we really must pay attention to these large infrastructure projects, and and we must do so very clearly, in an organized manner to know how we are going to succeed in integrating the new infrastructures in the city. How we are going to succeed in integrating them but also what are we going to get out of it, because the objective is to be able to use the structuring effect of the infrastructure to drive urban development. Finally, the large housing projects. We are straddling urban development operations and public policy, urban policy. In general, the objective is to offer a roof to the greatest number. So we are going to make housing programs, and we can be dealing with specific parcels, some parcels, or on the contrary with the whole city. Here we are dealing more with, no longer land use planning but public policy. The large housing programs, they have had hour of glory some decades ago. Donors, including World Bank have invested heavily housing before completely stopping and doing only the stable parcel. Today we are slowly coming back to these large housing programs because we realize that beyond property, we must also give a roof to the most vulnerable populations, and it's through these large housing programs that it will happen. So there is a consequence to all of this. When there are the big events, let's say, Brazil, in Rio in particular, with the World Cup and the Olympic games that will follow. But also, when we create large infrastructures. When we create these large infrastructures, this creates, or we want to create property appreciation, or we do urban renovation, all these phenomenons have a common point, these are the evictions. This means that to build a new stadium in Pekin, thousands of people had to be displaced. In order to build a highway in Dhakar, it wasn't thousands but rather hundreds of people that had to be displaced, since they had their housing exactly on the highway layout. This means that when we put in place an infrastructure, this creates property appreciation. The more public transportation in the center of cities, the more the property price will increase and the more the poorest populations will no longer have the means to pay their rent that will have increased. So the property appreciation, the mechanisms that are behind this eventually create evictions. So in the first case mentioned, it is the State who is going to displace the people, they're going to take them and displace them. In the case of the property appreciation, it is not necessarily in the same case. It is the market which, in the end, will make it so that people are going to have leave by themselves, but it's also a case of eviction. The last case, urban renovaction. We easily understand that in urban renovation, there is a part which is destroyed in order to be rebuilt, and often, it is not built by the same standards, by the same norms, and the housing size is increased, the construction standards. So that they are not the same populations who used to live there before and who will be able to live there after, and this creates evictions. There you have a quick description of some of the most classical urban development operations, with their consequences always being evictions. So it's important to question before creating these large operations, what this means in human cost, in evictions, to know if you are going to displace many people or not. Zero eviction is rarely possible, but we should, little by little, extend towards this objective. There is sometimes the impossibility of extending towards this objective, since we have to, for the whole city, and all of the people, carry out a number of infrastructures in particular and we cannot simply avoid the dwellings. However between, I'm going to displace everyone and no one, there must be a way which is the best possible for all of the residents of the city and above all for the residents of neighborhoods which are supposed to be the ones displaced.