In this video we are going to talk about facilities and infrastructure. Let's start with facilities. So when we talk about public facilities, we are talking primarily of users. The users, are the very reason, for the existence of public facilities. Without users, inevitably no facilities. Then, to the user, who is the individual who is going to use the facilities, we must also add the service users. Service users, take for example a school, the user is the student and and the service user is the professor or the teacher. Another example, at the hospital, the doctor is the service user and the patient is the user. There, we differentiate between these two types of people. In countries where the state is in deficit, or where the state is struggling to pay, all the facilities, we can use the users to create a certain number of facilities. So the users are going to help financially, whether by manual labor in the construction of a certain number of facilities. So, if we try to group or classify facilities we have several parameters that may be considered. We can classify facilities that are either structuring facilities, or accompanying facilities. The structuring facilities are the main facilities and the accompanying facilities are the small facilities that are not necessarily essential to the whole of the urban system. Then we can also group once again the facilities depending on their size, status or their function. In regards to the planning, we can plan. We have, once again, three, four, five levels, depending on the countries, but we are going from state to neighborhood as a general rule. So we are moving from state planning to regional, of urban area, of municipality, of neighborhood. And its management is exactly the same. We can move from state to neighborhood with, initially, something very centralized at the state level and something totally decentralized, that goes back to the local collective and which is managed by the neighborhood people themselves. So when speaking of creating facilities, we have, I would say a current position. Now is the time, of course, and then it's the variable which is the number of people or the percentage, we can do both, of the population which has access to the base facilities. So the reality is almost that and then we always have the same number who has access to these facilities. On the other hand, the population increases like this. So that's what makes it so that the gap is so large and that there are less and less people as we go along, who have access to the facilities. The objective, of course, is one where we would have here almost a contact point between on one hand people that have access to facilities in this low area and the increase in population. So the objective would be that everyone has access to the facilities in a sustainable manner. The reality is unfortunately quite the opposite, it's that we have facilities where people arrive casually, increased thanks to a certain number of programs but the population, like in the first diagram, is always expanding. So the final gap here, x is a little bit smaller than in the current situation but the level of service, the number of people who have access to the facilities remains extremely low compared to what it should be. So there, basically, between the current situation, and the objectives, we have a real situation and we realize that the population increase is such that we would need a huge adjustment in terms of facilities, equip the neighborhoods, equip the areas and since these facilities are extremely expensive, it is very unlikely for us to be able to adjust and that we would, in the next few years, find ourselves in the second situation which is the situation of the objective. Hence the problem, both of facilities and of the demand of facilities. So the demand increases. Why? Because, we saw it earlier, there is a population increase. So this absolute number, the increase, if I take water for example, the number of liters per person, we are no longer talking about facilities. We are already in the realm of infrastructure, we'll talk it about later but for my demonstration, water is the perfect example. We see that with the number of people increasing, the quantity of water that I have to put at their disposition will be larger- but we also know that with time, the consumption, the number of liters of clean water per person, is increasing. So I have this double increase and it's exactly the same thing with the facilities. We are dealing at once with a population that increases so a need for health centers, a need for hospitals that increases, and at the same time, the number of consultations increases also. So we have greater tendency to go more and more, of course according to its means, but more and more at the doctor's office. So we have this double increase making it so that the facility has to respond to this. And taking into account the scarce resources, at the city level, at the state level, at the local collective level, we finally have the gap that is growing between people who have access to these facilities and the people who have no access at all to these facilities. Let's move on now to infrastructures. So we define infrastructures as being the necessary factors in the functioning of the urban area. So the urban infrastructure is for the urban system, for the functioning of it. So we can have at both buildings, warehouses, pipelines, these kinds of things. All this helps with the functioning of it. Let's take the example of aviation. The infrastructure is the airport. It helps in the functioning of the aerial system. We don't need to have in the open sky other types of infrastructures for the planes. But in order for the plan to take off and land we need infrastructure. This helps the system. It is the same with water, with electricity, with all these types of networks. Also we have to take a look at, in the broad sense, the term infrastructure. This infrastructure is finally also a question of services, of the quality of services. For the infrastructure, in order for the water infrastructure to work, we have both pipelines but also standpipe managers people who will read the meters in your home and ultimately it requires in any case a user like for the facilities. Here also the user becomes, I would say the reference point of the infrastructure as he was that of the facility. So we are going to see exactly what are the facilities, what is the minimum facility that would allow the urban system to function. Above all, it's not really a facility but we have to provide it for the memory because it's important, it needs available land. At the same time to create facilities but also to place users. So without available land, there is no possible urbanization. Then, there need to be means of transportation, water systems, water drainage, household waste drainage, of electricity, of telephone and internet, of course, more and more. So, available land. We have already indicated it a little bit. It is necessary to create these infrastructures. Of course available land is also needed so that the users can settle, can live. But without land, there are great difficulties. Sometimes, they are not available and people are going to be displaced to put up infrastructure but it's the essential condition, the basic condition that there be lands available on which infrastructure can be created. We are talking about means of transportation but we are more on the topic of road infrastructure, we are talking about roads and we see that, in theory, in the city centers and the major roadways, the roads are asphalted and then the farther we get from the major roadways, closer to the neighborhoods, the less asphalted the roads. So the road between cities is extremely important as it allows easier connections or not but also in the very interior of the urban perimeter. It's extremely important for the large roadways to have a certain number of asphalted roads. So these asphalted roads, are in theory the national roads which means that each area from the main city, goes in every direction in a particular area, in another city. Meaning that since the only asphalted roads are the national roads, we have a development like this, we have to with each national road that starts along the road. It is difficult to have a compact urbanization, when we have roadways that develop and urbanization in general that develops around or along the asphalted roads. Then, we have water systems for clean water, the main urban infrastructure. It's more important to have systems for water than for roads. Often it's the opposite of what is financed. But it is extremely important and we can see that there is an entire system that is organized since there are water mains that reach the neighborhoods, then, often we have standpipes with operators, with people that will bring it, house by house, in large metallic barrels of water. So there is a whole system and an entire economy that is developing around clean water. Drainage of waste water. It's often the poor relative of the infrastructure. We have both clear water and waste water. It's very rare to have waste water drainage systems that work. They can perhaps be found in city centers but the farther we get from the suburbs, the more these are individual systems on the plot which are septic tanks that are emptied from time to time, or rather, no system at all for the drainage of waste water and waste, in particular fecal waste, remains on the plot. Drainage of household waste. The same phenomenon as for the waste water drainage. Certain systems are in place but don't necessarily reach all of the neighborhoods and we see here and there entire garbage dumps, since people have to store it not on their own plot in the public space, but store the garbage in front of their house. We then have the power grid network. So there is a paradox when it comes to the power grid network, some consider it a luxury. Indeed we can live without electricity it's more difficult to live without water. However electricity allows, for the development of crafts or of business, some refrigerators, some electrical appliances that can operate and can allow for the development of an activity. The paradox is that it is a luxury but it is the network that without a doubt costs the least to put in place. Since it is just some wires and some posts comparing it to a road network, comparing it to a water systems network, which are the networks in the latter, that are buried therefore are extremely expensive to put in place. The power grid system is something that is relatively superficial. However, the costs of electricity, the costs of production are such that it's not necessarily what will be put in place first in a neighborhood. Generally, we go from the road, then the waterways, then electricity. Good. We should without a doubt go from waterways first, to the road next and then why not, to electricity. Then it's about asking questions about the telephone network really, there is a cabled network that some countries still have, almost everywhere. Today's question: with the development of the cellphone, is it still useful to foresee telephone networks in neighborhoods? So this shows quite well that the standards that will be put in place, the level of facilities, can change with time. There are things that are more immutable than others but in the case of the telephone in particular some have never had access to cabling, to telephone networks and today have access to communication via the cellphone. The question will be with the Internet. In most of the African cities, they have gone directly to a WiFi network to a wireless network, rather than imagine that one day there was going to be cabling and the existing telephone networks were going to be used perhaps, in particular for the Internet. So a certain number could be cabled but in the majority of cases we realized that maybe it's a WiFi network that is the most adapted to the situation of African cities today. So there are some synthesis factors. First about the costs. Electric networks cost little, the road network is extremely expensive. Arbitration must be conducted when there is an available sum to supply, in a general sense, to service a neighborhood or a new subdivision, there must be questions asked about the costs of the various networks. There are two types of networks, there are those from which it is possible to obtain cost-recovery. It is the power grid network since electricity will have fees charged, it's the water network since it will be be charged by the liter or by cubic meter. On the other hand, when it comes to waste water drainage, household waste, it's extremely difficult since the mechanisms possible for cost-recovery have not yet been found, in particular for waste water drainage. Finally, there is sometimes a distinction to be made between what seems to us, I spoke of water earlier, which seems to me totally legitimate and what the perception of the people. The rural populations that arrive to the city don't have the idea that the water network, the waterways of clean water are a priority. They are used to doing otherwise, in particular, going to the well, finding a variety of ways but definitely not having a faucet by which clean water can be obtained. It's not their priority, for the rural people that arrive. However, we have to have an arbitration, because we know there is a balance between the level of facility, between a certain number of facilities and infrastructure and public health in particular. So then it is possible to organize these various factors in the form of a grid, that we call a needs grid. Very quickly, we have here the infrastructure, for example water supply, roads, etc. And on the other hand we have the basic needs, the first level, second, third, fourth, we can continue like this depending on the level of service desired So I'm going to take the example here of water. It's a number, liters per person, per day. Some lenders give us 30, others 25, in reality we often have less than 25 liters of water per day and per person. So we could imagine that the first level is 50 liters, the second 100 liters and the third 400. Or rather, we can imagine that the first is 30 since we started below 25, then we are at 40 and the maximum at the third level is 50. So all of this, this question, it must be treated according to the context. All cities do not have the exact access to water and finally, this sum at the third level here, the quantity of maximum water has to depend on the geographical context, morphological of course , on the possibility of having or not having water for the residents. In the Sahel or Sahara, we will not have the same number here as in the heart of tropical areas, this seems extremely obvious. So we can define a certain number of levels. Let's take five levels and then it is possible to say to what they correspond, what type of work, what type of services correspond to what level. So for the first level, we are talking about basic things. This just means clearing the brush and limiting the plots. Second level. Roadways profile, perhaps of the laterite, perhaps lightly of a large paved highway the edges of waterways that are coming, very little at the beginning and the possibility of an electricity supply for the community needs. Third level, the highway network, maybe a little bit more paved. We can imagine having roadsides, sanitation facilities, in any case, ditches that allow rainwater to drain. In terms of water, either we develop the standpipes, or we can imagine a clean water network and maybe electrical that before used to serve only to the supply of public facilities, may now also be used for public lighting. Fourth level. The highway network, we increase the amount of asphalted highways and the sanitation is not much more than ditches that are dug in the ground, but have a particular profile and are hard-surfaced. Finally, the fifth level. It is of course, the previous level plus electricity issues where we can imagine the possibilities of individual connections to the plot as well as water systems or we can imagine for all the plots this time a possibility of individual connection. So there we have quickly examined the facilities and infrastructures. What is important to remember is that we have various levels of facilities that are various levels of services that are given to the population, that these facilities, that these infrastructure have a cost, have a construction cost. To build a network has a cost. But they also have management costs as well, managing the network on a daily basis has a cost when it needs to be renovated years later, there is also a cost behind this which is the cost of updating the infrastructures. So three types of costs must be considered. In general, only the construction cost is taken into account and then what happens doesn't matter very much. If we want to create long-term sustainable planning, it's not only the construction cost that has to be taken into account but the operating cost also, finally the cost of updating these infrastructures.