The end is often the best starting point. This enigmatic statement helps us to introduce the topic we are about to discuss: the Intended Learning Outcomes. Why is it so important to start a learning innovation design process from the end, in other words from defining the Intended Learning Outcomes? Emanuele Severino, one of the great philosophers of our time, explains this very well. “If an action abandons its scope to take on a different one [...] it then becomes something different itself, it changes contents, rhythm, intensity, relevance, configuration”. When we talk about teaching experiences, the Intended Learning Outcomes entail the teaching actions and, at the same time, the teaching actions entail the objectives which are the Intended Learning Outcomes. All subjects involved, students, teachers and teachers’ collaborators, will have their purpose in the teaching and learning experience. But the most important thing we need to focus right now is that the teacher designer has the responsibility to clearly formulate, right from the start, the Intended Learning Outcomes. "Ignoranti quem portum petat nullus suus ventus est” wrote Seneca to Lucilio a lot of centuries ago. For the one who does not know which port to go to, no wind is favorable”. Intended Learning Outcomes may be the teacher’s guide in the design of teaching and learning activities and in the choice of assessment strategies that will allow him to observe whether or not the Intended Learning Outcomes have been achieved. So, careful, we have mentioned three elements here: the Intended Learning Outcomes, the teaching activities and the assessment strategies. These elements constitute the fundamental pillars of a logic tool that will be of great help along the entire learning innovation design process. Let’s have a look at what it is! Do you recognize this picture? Is this an island? Can someone place it somewhere geographically? I’ll give you a moment to think about it. Perhaps someone has guessed it already. This is Tasmania, a small island – compared of course to Australia that is huge – situated precisely south of Australia. But why is Tasmania so interesting to us right now? It is because Tasmania is where John Biggs, a very important person for our journey in this MOOC, was born. John Biggs is a famous pedagogist born in Tasmania, as we just mentioned, but who developed his whole career in Canada. He designed a very helpful logic tool called precisely: Biggs’ Triangle. What does the Biggs’ Triangle tell us? It tells us that the prerequisites for an effective teaching is that there is a correct logical alignment among the Intended Learning Outcomes, the teaching and learning activities, and the assessment strategies that allow us to observe if the Intended Learning Outcomes have been met. Biggs defined this process as “constructive alignment”. What does he mean by “alignment”? This is already clear from this diagram, in the sense that the prerequisite of an effective teaching is being able to design a consistent alignment among these three elements: Intended Learning Outcomes, assessment processes and activities. But why “constructive”? Because it allows students to build, to construct, their own learning. In Biggs’ perspective, in fact, the role of the student is at the center of the teaching and learning processes. Thanks to the fact that the teacher designs appropriate teaching and learning activities, students can create their own learning outcomes which the teacher will then observe through assessment processes. In Biggs vision teachers, once they have formulated the Intended Learning Outcomes, need to do everything they can to activate a context that fosters their achievement. In his considerations on the Intended Learning Outcomes, Biggs reminds us of another very important thing: when we are designing the Intended Learning Outcomes for a lesson, we must never forget the fact that this lesson fits into a wider context. A context that is constituted by all the other courses of a degree program and from the institution in its entirety. So, when we are designing the Learning Outcomes for a single course, we need to have in mind which are the profiles expected at the end of the students’ academic career by the degree program. Furthermore, we also need to place particular attention on remembering which are the courses that, in all probability, our students will follow concurrently or after the learning path we designed. Now, lets recap what’s useful for us from Biggs’ approach. A teaching and learning design experience can take its first steps from an accurate formulation of the Intended Learning Outcomes. Afterwards, it can focus on designing the assessment strategies that allow teachers to observe if the Intended Learning Outcomes have been met. Finally, only at this point it can explore the teaching and learning activities we believe necessary to support students in achieving the Intended Learning Outcomes and positively overcoming the assessment tests.