How can we contribute to establishing an affordable faecal sludge collection service for neighborhoods like this? Where sanitation needs are mostly met by pit latrines. They produce sludge with a high viscosity. That is difficult to be pumped, and accessed by vacuum trucks. In this module, we will look at the few advances that work toward making sludge collection in this context possible. Following this module, you will be able to list innovative collection technologies, name examples of how the design and operation of on-site sanitation technologies can ease collection, and explain what container-based sanitation is. Faecal sludge can have a very high solid content, a high viscosity. As shown here in Lusaka, in Zambia. Which makes collection vacuum trucks, or vacutug, not possible. In addition, sludge with these characteristics is often located in areas where they're difficult to access because of the topography, settlement density, or poor road conditions. In the following, we will look at three technologies that were developed for such sludge that has a high solid content and viscosity. Searching the internet, you'll find other technologies such as the MAPET or the manually operated diaphragm pump that could be suitable for your situation. The Rammer is one example of such a technology. and was developed based on operation experience with the Gulper in several countries. The Rammers therefore also referred to as the Gulper II. This slide shows the Gulper and Rammer next to each other. In contrast to the Gulper, where the sludge is sucked through a cylinder the Rammer lifts sludge with a raising cylinder. The Rammer is an improvement of the Gulper in several ways. Firstly, the connecting rods are located outside of the Rammer. And it has a leveler, which makes operations easier. Secondly, the cylinder of the Rammer can be extended up to 3 meters. Whereas it's only 1.5 meter were possible with the Gulper. This means that sludge can be collected from deeper onsite sanitation technologies. This video shows the Rammer in operation in Kampala. A third benefit of the Rammer is that a hosepipe can be connected to the Rammer, which makes direct lifting for transport possible, and increase the protection of workers. Another technology that has been developed for removal of sludge with a high viscosity, is the screw auger, also called excrevator, that has been piloted among others in South Africa, Malawi and India. As shown in this picture, a screw auger lifts the sludge with a screw, that is located in a pipe. The screw is rotated by a motor that is located at the top. As also shown in this picture here, the excrevator is placed on a dolly frame to increase mobility and accessibility of onsite sanitation technologies. This picture shows the excrevator in operation in Durban. As you can see, the outlet of the excrevator is connected to a hose which transport it to a collection container. The third technology that we would like to introduce in this module is the evac. Shown in this picture. It is a small vacuum pump located on a two-wheel trolley frame. The sludge is collected in the white vacuum cylinder. Once these white cylinders are full, the sludge has to be removed from the cylinders before sludge collection can be continued. This picture shows the evac in operation in Kigali, in Rwanda. As you can see, with a similar power compared to a small vacuum truck the evac is much smaller and still mobile for use in areas with a difficult topography, poor road conditions or narrow lanes. A problem for the operation of all these technologies, is solid waste that is frequently disposed of in onsite sanitation technologies. Screens at the inlet of these technologies, such as shown here for the Rammer, can prevent damaging of the collection technology. But do lead to clogging and stop the collection process. As shown in this video from Kampala, A metal rod is frequently used to remove solid waste before using sludge collection technologies. Or as shown here, from Durban, it needs to be removed by shovels. Removal of solid waste can be a very time-consuming activity. Also, the solid waste requires management following removal, which is likely contains pathogens and puts workers, health and safety at risk. The disposal of solid waste into onsite sanitation technologies is one example of how the design and operation of onsite sanitation technologies can influence sludge collection. Sludge collection could for example be improved, by the implementation of different drop holes for pit latrines, that do not allow large pieces of solid waste to enter the pit. This shown here in a picture from Kampala. In addition, solid waste should be kept outside of onsite sanitation technologies, by implementation of solid waste management, or the education of users. Ultimately, removal of solid waste before sludge collection will increase the service fee the household has to pay through collection service provider. This could be a financial incentive for change. Next to solid waste, an access point to the onsite sanitation technology can be a constraint for collection. For pit latrines, where sludge might get collected through the drop hole, the drop hole potential needs to be increased which may affect its future functionality. This picture shows an example of how an access point was integrated into the design of a pit latrine in Kampala. The access point is located here. And allows easy sludge collection, without affecting the integrity and functionality of the structure. This pit is also fully lined. This ensure ground water protection and that sludge can be collected without risking the collapse of the pit. Fecal sludge is mostly water, which is heavy to transport. Keeping the water outside of onsite sanitation technologies, for example in source separating dry toilets, could be another way to facilitate sludge collection. If source separating dry toilet are connected to a collection service they become referred to as "container based sanitation". This is currently being piloted in several countries, for example Haiti, Kenya and Ghana. This picture shows an example of such an onsite sanitation technology in Kenya. The faeces are collected in the container in the back, and the urine in the container at the front. Every few days, these containers are then replaced by empty containers and transported for treatment. This picture shows such containers for replacement and collection of the full containers in Ghana. In this module we introduce to three innovative technologies that could contribute to sludge collection in urban poor areas with difficult accessibility, topography, and with sludge that has a high solid content and viscosity. These were the rammer, the excrevator and the evac. In addition to these collection technologies, keeping solid waste out of onsite sanitation technologies, lining, and providing access points for sludge collection, examples of how the design and operation of onsite sanitation technologies, can facilitate sludge collection. Container based sanitation are an alternative to pit latrines that are currently being piloted and could also ease sludge collection.