第十讲，复句。 Unit Ten, Compound sentence. 第一节 联合复句。 Lesson 1, Coordinate composite sentence. 有两个或两个以上的句子组成的 表达一个完整的意思的句子叫做复句 A sentence consisting of two or more clauses, expressing a complete meaning, is called a complex sentence. 汉语的复句可以根据句子和句子之间的语法关系 分为联合复句和偏正复句两类 The complex sentences in Chinese can be classified into two categories: the coordinate composite sentence and the modifying compound sentence according to the grammatical relation between the sentences. 联合复句各个句子是平等的，没有主次之别 Each sentence in a coordinate composite sentence is equal, and there is no distinction between the primary and secondary clauses. 这种复句又可以根据句子之间的意义关系分为并列复句 According to the meaning relations between sentences, this complex sentence can also be divided into parallel compound sentences, 承接复句、 递进复句和选择复句等 一. continuous sentences, progressive compound sentences and selective compound sentences. First, 并列复句。 A parallel compound sentence. 并列复句的各句子是并列关系 它们分别叙述、 说明几种事物或情况等 The clauses in a parallel compound sentence are juxtaposition. They describe and explain several things or situations respectively. 例如，①你去，我也去 这里面的你去是一种情况 For example, if you go, I will go. In this case, if you go is one situation, 我也去是另外一种情况，所以是两种情况并列 第②例，这件衣服又便宜，又好看 and I’ll go is the other one, so it's the two cases that be juxtaposed. Case two, this dress is cheap and nice, 那么也是两种情况，所以呢它们之间也是一种并列关系 which also conclude two conditions, so they are also juxtaposed. 并列复句中关联词语的搭配情况 并列复句中经常使用一些关联词语 Conjunction words in parallel compound sentences Some conjunction words are often used in parallel compound sentences 常用的有"也"、 "还"、 "又"、 "一边"、 不是"、 Commonly used are “Ye”, “Hai”, “You”, “Yi bian”, "就是" "既"等，这些关联词语的搭配情况如下表 “Bu shi” “Jiu shi” “Ji” and so on. The collocation of these conjunction words are as followed 我们看一下，那么前面的句子是不要 用关联词语，后面句子可以用"也"来联系起，把这两个句子 Let's look at the form, so the sentence in front of it is “buyao”
Using conjunction words, the following sentences can be linked by “Ye(also)“. 联系起来，比如说我喜欢这个，也喜欢那个，所以 我喜欢这个，也喜欢那个，这两个是什么呢？并列关系。 So connect it together for example, I like this and also like that, so
what’s the sentence type of these two? They are juxtaposed. 下面一个是什么呢 后一个句子还可以用"还"，前面也可以呢不要用，比如说，爸爸去过中国 还去过韩国。 What is the next one? Using “Hai” in the latter clause, and no need to use any conjunction word in the former clause.For example, dad has been to China,
and he has also been to Korea. 那么用"还" 把爸爸去过中国，去过韩国这两个 句子呢联系在一起，形成并列关系。 So use “Hai(also)” connect two clauses that Dad has been to China, and also been to Korea in Chinese to form the parallel relationship. 那么还可以用什么呢？ 前面用"又"，后面句子也用"又"。 So what else can we use? Using “you(and)” in former clause, and also using “you(and)” in the latter sentences. 比如说，烤鸭又好吃，又不贵 那么烤鸭又好吃是一种情况，又不贵呢是另外一种情况，所以这两种情况也是一种 For example, roast duck is tasty and not expensive.
Well, roast duck is tasty is one situation and it's not expensive is another one. So these two situations are also parallel sentences. 并列关系，那么下面的一边...一边...，也可以联系呢两个句子 比如说大家一边吃，一边谈。 Parallel relations, so next one “Yi Bian…Yi Bian…” can also connect two sentences.
For example, everyone is eating and talking. 一边吃，一边谈，也是两种情况，所以它们也是并列关系 其他的"不是...就是..."、 Eating and talking are two situations, so they are parallel. Others like “Bu shi…Jiu shi…” "既...又..."也是类似的一种情况 二. “Ji ….You …” are also the same situation. Second, 承接复句 承接复句的各句子依次叙述连续 Continuous sentences, The sentences that carry complex sentences tell successively 或相继发生的几个动作或几种情况等 那么各个句子的顺序不能颠倒，我们来看一下例子 or successively a few actions or several situations in succession, so the order of each sentence cannot be reversed. Let us see the examples. 第①例，首先我们讨论做什么 其次讨论什么时候做，最后再讨论怎么做 The first example, First we discuss what to do, next discuss when to do it, and finally discuss how to do it. 那么这实际上首先、 其次、 最后它们有种什么呢，顺序关系 顺序关系，这个顺序不能颠倒。 So, actually, what is the first, the second, and the last? what kind of sequence relations do they have?
That’s in order, the order cannot be reversed. 所以呢这是一种承接，就是一个发生了，再发生另外一个 这样的一种，表示这样的一种关系。 So, this is a kind of undertaking, that is, one happened, then another one happened to show such a relationship. 承接复句中关联词语的搭配情况 承接复句前面的句子中，常用"先""首先"一"等副词 The collocation of conjunction words in the continuous compound sentence. In the continuous sentences, we usually use "Xian", “Shouxian ", “Yi" and other adverbs. 后面的句子中常用”就""便""再""然后""于是"等副词或连词 The following sentences often use adverbs or conjunctions such as "Jiu", "Bian", “Zai", "Ranhou" and "Yushi". 那么这些关联词语的搭配情况如下表，我们来看一下表 So the collocation of these conjunction words are as followed: let's look at the table. 那么前面的句子可以不用，后面的句子那么用"就"，那么形成这样的句子 雨停了，我们就出发。 We can not use any conjunction word in former cluase, and use “Jiu” in latter sentences to form this kind of sentence.
If the rain stopped, we’ll (Jiu) start off. 它们两个是什么关系呢？也是一种这个 承接关系。 What is the relationship between the two of them? It is also a kind of continuous connection. 一...前面一个句子用"一"，后面句子用"就"，老师一讲 同学们就明白了。 First, we use “Yi” in the former clause, and use “Jiu” in the later clause. After my explanation you’ll understand. 那么这两个句子也是一种承接关系 那么也可以用先...再...。 So these two clauses are also continuous relationship, we can also use “Xian… Zai…”. 你先吃，我再吃。 You eat first(Xian), I'll eat it later(Zai). "先""再" 先吃和我一会再吃，这两个句子呢也是 “Xian” “Zai”, eat first and eat later, these two clauses are also 一种承接关系，那么也可以前面不用，后面句子用"于是" continuous relations, then we can use nothing in the first sentence and use “Yu shi” in the later sentence to 把这两个句子连起来，比如说昨天路过故宫，于是就买张票进去看了看 connect these two sentences. For example, passing through the Imperial Palace yesterday, so(Yu shi) they bought tickets and went inside to have a look. 那么这个用"于是..."把这两个句子联系在一起，它们也是一种什么呢？承接关系 So what does this mean by linking up these two clauses with “Yu shi”? It’s also a kind of contin-uous relation. 好，那么下面呢还有用 "然后..."的，后一个句子用"然后"也是这种情况，还有"首先...其次...最后 Then, what’s the next one?
“Ran hou(Later)” , use it in the later clauses, and also “Shou xian(First)…Qi Ci (then)…Zui hou(last one)” ..." 那么刚才我们前面讲过了，所以由于时间的问题我们就不一一介绍 三· …”we talked about it just now, so we will not introduce them one by one. Third, 递进复句 递进复句后面的句子表示的意思比前面的 Progressive compound sentence. The sentence behind the progressive compound sentence means more than the preceding one. 更近一层，我们来看一下例子就比较清楚了。 Let's take a look at the example. 我们看第一例：李老师不但会说英语 还会说法语，那么这两个句子关系就是一种什么呢？ First example: Mr. Li can not only(Bu Dan) speak English but also(Er qie) speak French, so what is the relationship between the two clauses? 递进关系，也就是说会说法语要比会说英语呢更厉害 或是更重要。 Progressive meaning. That is to say, speaking French is better or more important than speaking English. 再看一下第②例，今天热，明天比今天还热 Let's take a look at the second example. It's hot today, but tomorrow it is (Hai) hotter than today. 还热，那么也就是说这个程度啊，要比前面的更深一些 Hotter(Hai Re), which means the level is deeper than the former one. 所以呢也是一种递进，递进关系。 So it's also a progressive, progressive relationship. 应该注意的是 前后两个句子的主语不同时，"不但"一般位于主语前。 It should be noted that when the subjects of the two clauses are different, “Bu san(Not only)” usually be set before the subject. 我们来看一下例子就比较清楚 我们看例①，不但学费不贵，而且校园很漂亮 Let's take a look at the examples, then we’ll see clearly. Example NO.1, we not only(Bu dan) pay less tuition, but also(Er qie) the campus is beautiful. 那么这两个句子的主语呢是不一样的，一个是学费，一个是校园 So the subjects of these two clauses are different, one is tuition, the other one is the campus, 因此"不但"放在这个 学费的前边。 therefore, “Bu dan” should be put before the tuition. 第②例，不但字 写得很漂亮，并且画儿也画得不错 Example NO.2, the characters are not only(Bu dan) written beautifully, but also(Bing qie) the picture is well drawn. 那么我们看这两个句子的主语，一个是字，一个是画 也是不同的，所以这个"不但"要放在这个 So let's look at the two clauses, one is the character, the other is the painting.
It is also different, so this “Bu dan" should be put on this, 第一个句子的主语字的前边，所以这个语顺很重要 put before the subject of the first clause, so the sequence is very important. 那么前后两个句子的主语相同的时候 "不但"呢位于主语后。 Then, when the subjects of the two sentences are identical, “Bu dan" should be put after the sub-ject. 我们来看一下例子就比较清楚 我们看例①，烤鸭不但好吃，而且还不贵 Look at the example, example No.1, roast duck is not only(Bu Dan) tasty, but also(er qie) not expensive. 那么我们看这两个句子的主语都是什么呢？ 都是烤鸭，第一个句子说烤鸭不但好吃，而且呢烤鸭还不贵。 So what are the subjects of these two sentences?
It's the roast duck. The first sentence says that roast duck is not only delicious, but also not expensive. 这实际上也是说烤鸭的意思 所以呢它们的主语是相同。 which also refers to roast duck, so the subjects are the same. 那么这个"不但"呢放在什么地方呢？就放在第一个句子的 这个主语烤鸭的后面。 So where should we put this “Bu dan”? It should be put after the subject of the first clause. 第②例，我们看 她不但会说汉语，主语是她 并且会说英语。 Let’s check example No.2, she can not only (Bu dan)speak Chinese, the subject is she, and(Bing qie) she can speak English. 那么这个实际上是 它的主语呢也是她，并且她会说英语 So this is actually its subject is also she, and she can speak English. 这样的意思，因此呢这两个句子的主语呀也是一样 Therefore, the two subjects of these two clauses are the same. 所以呢这个"不但"也应该放在第一个句子的主语她的后面 So this “Bu dan" should also be placed behind the subject of the first clause, 也就是这个语顺啊也不能颠倒，否则的话这个句子就不合语法 which means the sequence of this sentence can not be reversed, or it cannot suitable for this sentence. 递进复句中关联词语的搭配情况 The collocation of the conjunction words in the progressive compound sentence 递进复句前面的句子中常出现"不但""不仅"等连词 In the progressive compound sentences, there are often used conjunctions such as “Bu dan”, “Bu jin”. 后面的句子中经常有"而且""并且""还""更" "甚至"等连词或副词 The clauses behind the first one also have conjunctions or adverbs such as “Er qie”, “Bing qie” “Hai” and “Shen zhi”. 那么这些关联词语的搭配情况如下表 我们来看一下表格就比较清楚。 The collocation of these words are as followed: we can clearly see it from the form. 前面的句子中出现的有"不但" “不仅"后面的句子中出现的有什么呢，"而且""并且" In the front clause, we use “Bu dan” “Bu jin”, what can be used in the later clause? “Er qie” “Bing qie”. 这个例子比如说，我们举个例子来看一下，这个学校学费不但便宜 而且离我家很近。 We can use an example, this school is not only (Bu dan)cheap but also(Er qie) close to my home. 所以"不但""而且"搭配 那么也可以用"不仅""并且" 来搭配起来。 Therefore, “Bu dan” “Er qie” can be collected together, and can also be used as “Bu jin” “Bing qie”. 有的时候前一个句子中不用关联词语或者副词 后一个句子用副词"还..."，比如说这个菜很好吃，还不贵。 Sometimes there are no conjunction words or adverbs in the previous clause.
The latter clause uses the adverbs “Hai…(and)", for example, the dish is delicious, and(Hai) not expensive. 用还... use “Hai…” 这个把它们联系起来，也有用 什么呢，前一个句子不用这个关联词语，后面用更...的，比如说 To connect them, we can also
not use conjunction word, and use “Geng…(even more)” in the later clause, for example, 这儿冬季雨很多，夏季雨更多 那么用这个更呢，把这两个句子呢也联系起来 there are lots of rain in winter and even(Geng) more rain in summer. So, use this conjunction word to connect two sentences. 那么当然也可以用甚至，这个时间问题我们就不一一介绍 四· Of course we can use “Shen zhi”, I’ll not explain too much because short of time. Fourth, 选择复句 选择复句的几个句子分别叙述 Selective compound sentences. In selective sentences, several clauses are used 不同的事情或情况，要求做出选择 我们来看一下例子。 to describe different things or situations, and ask for choices. Let’s look at the examples. 第①例，你或者去北京 或者去上海，那么这是 Example No.1, you go to beijing or Shanghai, which are 去北京和去上海是两种情况 two situations of going Beijing or Shanghai 那么要求呢听话人做出选择，是第一种情况还是去第二种情况 So listens will make the choose of one or two. 那第②例，要么今天考，要么明天考。 Example No.2, the exams are either been taken today or tomorrow. 那么今天考和明天考 也是两个选择，那么要求呢听话人 Taking exams today or tomorrow are two choices, so it asks listens 做出一个选择，所以呢我们叫做选择复句 to make a choice, therefore, these kind of sentences are called selective compound sentence. 而应该注意的是"或者..."，刚才我们说 And what we should pay attention to is “Huo zhe(or)…”. Just now we said "或（者）...或（者）..."，"要么...要么..."那么只能用于 “Huo, Huo zhe… Huo, Huo zhe…(either…or…)”, “Yao me…Yao me…(either…or…)” these words can only be used in selective sentences, 陈述句这个条件很重要 不能用于疑问句，就是不能用来问问题 which is an important condition, it can not be used in interrogative sentences, cannot ask questions. 但是"是……还是……" 那么它是一般用于疑问句，也就是说它们使用的情况 But “Shi…Haishi…”, it is generally used in interrogative sentences, that is to say, what they are used 是互相补充的，"是……还是……"是一般用来问问题的时候 要用"是……还是……"，所以这个条件也很重要 is complementary to each other, “Shi…Haishi…” is generally used to ask questions
so this situation is also important. 选择复句中关联词语的搭配情况 选择复句中常见的关联词语有"或""或者""要么""还是"等 The collocation of the conjunction words in the selective compound sentence
The common conjunction words in selective compound sentences are “Huo” “Huo zhe” “Yaome" “Hai shi". 这些关联词语的搭配情况如下表，我们看一下表格，前面的句子用 The collocation of these conjunction words are as followed: let's look at the table, "或"或者"或者"，后面句子也用"或"或者"或者"，我们看一下这个例子 use “Huo ” “Huo zhe” in the former clause, and the same in the later clause, Let’s look at the examples. 或明天考，或后天考 或者是：或者明天考，或者后天考。 Taking exams (Huo)tomorrow or (Hou) the day after tomorrow; Taking exams either(Hou zhe) tomorrow or (Hou zhe) the day after tomorrow. 用这个联系起来 或者是用什么呢，前面就有用"要么"后面也用"要么"，要么 你去，要么我去。 If you use this connection, you can use “Yao me(or)“ in both of the clauses,
Yao me you go, yao me I’ll go.(You go, or I’ll go.) 用这个关联词语 或者是"是..还是..."，第一个是呢，这个"是"可以省略。 With this conjunction, "Shi... Hai shi...", the first thing is, this “Shi" can be omitted. 去上海 还是去北京？那么我们这个也可以用”是去上海，还是去北京？"，都可以 To Shanghai or to Beijing? Then we can also use “ go to Shanghai or to Beijing?" "All can be.