第十一讲，篇章。 Unit Eleven, passages. 第一节，篇章的基本结构关系 由若干句子或一系列句子 Lesson 1, basic structure of the passages. Several sentences or a series of sentences that 组成的，表达一个完整意思的话语或文章就是篇章 汉语篇章的基本结构关系主要有三种 composing one section to express a complete meaning is a passage. There are three basic structural relations of Chinese texts: 分合关系、 递进关系、 并列关系 一· 分合关系。 Parting and summarizing relationship, progressive relationship, parallel relationship. First, parting and summarizing relationship. 所谓分合关系 是指篇章先对情况加以概括或总结 The so-called parting and summarizing relationship means to summarize the whole part firstly 然后叙述或讨论具体情况 也可以是先叙述或讨论具体情况 then describe specific conditions, or wen can also describe or discuss specific situations 然后再加以概括或总结。 and then summarize the whole section. 我们看一个例子 第①个例子，中国菜追求 let us check the first example, Chinese cuisine pursues 色、 香、 味、 形，因此可以说是一种艺术 color, aroma, taste and shape, so it can be said to be an art. 川菜的最大的特点是擅长调味，"一菜一味 百菜百味”。 The biggest feature of Sichuan cuisine is to be good at flavoring. "One dish has its own flavor". 鲁菜擅长河鲜、 海鲜的烹制 且以做汤闻名。 Shandong cuisine is good at cooking fresh seafood and making it famous for its soup. 那么这个例子中的，"中国菜追求色、 香、 味、 In this example, “Chinese cuisine pursues color, aroma, taste and shape, 形 因此说可以说是一种艺术"，是什么呢？是概括性的说明 so it can be said to be an art.” What’s this? It’s a summary. "川菜的最大特点是什么 这个且以做汤闻名。 “The biggest feature of Sichuan cuisine, it’s famous for its soup”. "是具体的说明，这一部分呢是具体说的 因此呢概括性说明在前，具体说明在后 It’s a specific description, therefore, the summarizing is ahead of the passage and the concrete explanation is after the summarizing sentence. 我们再看一个例子，第②例 Let’s check another example, 尊者在前，卑者在后，不尊不卑者 居中，各得其所。 The person with a high position should be put ahead, one with low position should be at last, and middle level should stay in the middle, which everyone plays their own role. 文章的排列顺序 一律遵循梁山好汉排座次的办法 The arrangement of articles should follow the way of ranking Liangshan heroes. 那么该例中的"尊者在前...各得其所。 So in this example, “The person with a high position should be put ahead,…everyone plays their own role.” "叙述的是什么呢？具体情况 "文章的排列顺序一律遵循梁山好汉排座次的办法" is saying what? And the specific situation “The arrangement of articles should follow the way of ranking Liangshan heroes.” 是什么呢？是概括性的说明，具体情况在前，概括情况在后 二· 递进关系。 What is this? It is a general expression. In this example, the specific information is put ahead, and the general situation has been put after that sentence. Second, progressive relationship. 所谓递进关系是指篇章 以时间先后或推理起止为顺序来组织话语 Progressive relationship refers to the organization of discourse in the order of time or reasonings. 例如我们来看一下一个例子。 For example, let’s take a look at next example. 第①例，王姐让我进屋，端茶、 送葵花籽 寒暄一番。 Example No.1, Ms.Wang asked me to enter the house, gave me a cup of tea, and then gave me some sunflower seeds and had a long-time greeting. 我憋不住了："快说 谁托你调换工作？帮我办办。 I can’t hold it back anymore, just said: “Come on, tell me who helped you change the job? Just please help me to have one.” " 那么这个例子就是按照时间发生的，发生的顺序 叙述事情发生的过程，句子出现的 So this example is to describe the process of events in the order of time. 先后顺序以谓语动词表示的行为动作 发生的先后为依据。 The order of occurrence of sentences is based on the sequence of actions taken by the predicate verb. 我们再看一个例子 第②例，首先的因素是，多年来，经济增长和社会发展 Let’s look at another example, No.2, for many years, the first factor is that economic growth and social development 不相协调。 are not in harmony. 原因之二：城乡 和区域发展失衡，收入差距扩大。 Second reason: The development of urban and rural areas is unbalanced, and the income gap is widening. 第三个原因是 内外政策的扭曲，包括投资政策、 The third reason is the distortion of internal and external policies including investment policy, 税收政策、 金融政策 这个例子就是按照推理起止来组织篇章 tax policy and financial policy, this example is to organize a text according to reasoning. 三· 并列关系 Third, parallel relationship. 并列关系是指篇章叙述的情况在地位上是平等的 是相提并论的。 Parallel relationship refers to the fact that the situation of narration is equal in position and can be put on the same bar. 例如，我们来看一下例子 第①例，我们买了便宜菜，就用东西盖住，急忙回家 For example, let’s check Example No.1, if we bought cheap food, we’ll cover it with cloths and hurry home; 买了鱼或肉，就慢慢走，碰上邻居，还主动说：" 几斤鱼，几斤肉，就花了好几十块钱。 while if we bought fish or meat, we’ll walk slowly. When we run into some neighbors, we’ll also said voluntarily: “Just a few Jin of fish and a few kilograms of meat, it costs dozens of dollars.” " 那么这个例子的"我们买了便宜菜到急忙回家。 In this example, “We bought cheap food and hurried home” " 和"买了鱼或肉到就花了好几十块钱。 and “bought fish and meat coasting dozens of dollars.” " 那么叙述的是两种情况，那么这两种情况呢是相提并论，也就是说是并列的 是同等的重要。
So we have two situations, and these situations are described side by side, which means they are paralleled. 再看第②例，山区一家人坐在一起吃饭的时候 都要请家中老人先动筷子 Let’s check Example 2, When the family in mountain area sits together to eat, they must invite the elderly at home to move the chopsticks first; 而在城市人家里，一桌菜摆好以后，总是孩子先下筷子 but the family in city area sits together to eat, the child always move the chopsticks first. 那么这一例子，"山区一家人到老人先动筷子" 和"而在城市人家里到孩子先下筷子。 In this case, “ the family in mountain area sits together to eat, they must invite the elderly at home to move the chopsticks first” and “the family in city area sits together to eat, the child always move the chopsticks first.” "那么叙述的也是两种情况 这两种情况呢形成了对比或者是形成比较 It narrates two situations, and these two situations formed contrast or comparison.