<i>Danjiao hangdang</i> refers to female role-types. From old age to middle age, from youth to adolescence, we define (these life stages) by role-types. Women of old age, what we commonly call <i>laodan</i>, or “old female” usually portrays women of high social status, or nurse maids, such motherly characters. Old female role-types sing with the true voice, or the great voice… just like my talking voice right now. The old female role-type also has formulaic movements. After the old female, there is the <i>mature female</i>. The <i>mature female</i> is also called the <i>da qingyi</i> or <i> great dark gown</i> role-type in Beijing opera. Such <i>mature female</i> role-type most often portrays married women. Actually many Kunqu plays feature major characters and exciting drama for <i>mature female</i> role-types. The first requirement of a <i>mature female</i> is a good voice. Many mature female roles feature major singing parts, such as <i>Injustice to Dou E</i>; including Mistress Zhao in the scene “Eating chaff” and “The will”, “Cutting the tresses” and “Selling the hair”, “Painting the portraits” and “Farewell to the grave”. All of these scenes featuring Mistress Zhao have major singing parts. This is characteristic of the <i>mature female</i> plays. After the <i>mature female</i> comes the <i>young noble lady also called the<i> fifth dan</i>. The <i>fifth dan</i> is what is ordinarily referred to as the <i>boudoir beauty</i>. This type of roles are young ladies, beautiful, cultured. Just like you college students. If you were to be type cast, you would all belong to the<i> boudoir beauty</i> (<i>young noble lady</i>) role-type: marriageable young ladies, or newly wed ladies. This age group, this type of roles, are generally assigned to the <i>young boudoir beauty (noble lady) </i>role-type. The <i>boudoir beauty (young noble lady)</i> role-type is also a major role-type. Representative plays featuring boudoir beauties are: <i>The Peony Pavilion, The Palace of Eternal Life, <i>The Western Wing, Peach Blossom Fan, and The Jade Hairpin. The female protagonist in these famous plays must be undertaken by a <i>boudoir beauty. Therefore, the demand on the<i> boudoir beauty </i>role-type is much greater than other role-types. After the <i>boudoir beauty </i>comes younger girls. What is the role-type then? It is what we call the <i>sixth dan</i>, or <i>flower dan</i>, or <i>vivacious female</i> role-type. Chunxiang (in P<i>eony Pavilion</i>) or Meixiang (both maid servants) are <i>young vivacious female </i>role-type. Somewhat more mature <i>vivacious dan</i> are characters such as Hongniang (the maid in <i>The Western Wing</i>), or Pan Jinlian (in <i>Water Margin</i>). Very lively and sharp-tongued personalities are also included within the <i>vivacious </i>category. Then there are <i>martial female and horseback heroine</i> role-types who specialize in martial arts and weapons play. Mu Guiying, Madame Bai, Liang Hongyu, are <i>martial female</i> role-type. From these we can see that sub-categories of<i> female</i> role-types are very refined, each having unique characteristics. Among boudoir females, typical roles are Du Liniang (<i>Peony Pavilion</i>), Yang Guifei (<i>Palace of Eternal Life</i>), and Chen Miaochang (<i>Jade Hairpin</i>). They all share the characteristics of beauty, youth, intelligence, and refinement. But in my several decades of acting life I feel that we cannot emphasize only the shared characteristics of a role-type. Most importantly, by a certain age, I want to create a character and portray each character’s unique personality. This way, your character will not be always the same. Right? For example Du Liniang is an unmarried maiden in the boudoir; Yang Guifei is a mature woman, how can she be the same (as Du Liniang)? Her costume is different, her opposite, her surroundings are all different. Therefore when you are acting out the part your voice, expression, emotion, singing, speaking gestures, all must be unique. Take the voice for example, Yang Guifei’s opposite is the emperor, right? When she enters, her deportment must be different. Your voice must be rich and sweet. “Ah, your majesty, your majesty, please.” When you open your mouth before the palace maids, eunuchs, all those people, you are not afraid. I can stand firm. My voice must be firm. I am this sort of personality, this kind of status. Then again, in the scene “Interrupted dream”, When Du Liniang meets Liu Mengmei, her dream lover, you cannot speak like this. Or Liu Mengmei will be scared to death. Right? You must be reserved, soft spoken. “I have never met that man. Why is he here?” She must be somewhat dreamy. A little sleepy, a bit nervous, a little shy. Although the role-type is the same, they are different characters, in different dramatic setting, different opposites.