Many of us have heard of the term physical disability. But do we know what it actually is and what it means for those who have a disability. Let's start from the beginning. What is physical disability? Physical disability is that significant impairment to an individual's physical range of motion and or ability to independently complete daily tasks, such as walking, sitting, standing, eating. These are tasks able-bodied people take for granted, and which can cause much distress for less able bodied people. Symptoms relating to physical disabilities vary in how much or little someone is affected by certain impairments. Physical disabilities can be congenital, caused by the environment surrounding their birth, or hereditary, genetically transmitted from parent to offspring. Examples include cerebral palsy, deformity, spina bifida, or osteogenesis imperfecta, otherwise known as brittle bone disease. Physical disabilities can also be acquired through another means during the course of their lives. Maybe a disease or impairment developed later on through life rather than directly from birth. Examples include amputation, cancer, traumatic brain injury, polio, stroke, and paralysis. Physical disabilities can be either musculoskeletal or neuromuscular. Musculoskeletal disability relates to the poor ability to control muscle movement, muscle strength or stamina caused by deformed bones and all muscles, as well as low muscle mass. Examples being brittle bone disease, deformed limbs, absent limbs, muscular dystrophy. Neuromuscular disability relates to the poor ability to control muscle movement. Examples include cerebral palsy, stroke, spina bifida, spinal cord injuries, or traumatic brain injury. It is important to note that physical disabilities can manifest in any combination of the previously two mentioned groups. Now, let's look at some examples of physical disability so you can relate them to a real-world context. Traumatic brain injury is a brain injury caused by damage to the head surface, which can be either acquired in life or congenital caused by the injury at birth. Typical causes of traumatic brain injury could include a car accident, a tumor, an infection, or for those unfortunate enough to experience a stroke. Traumatic brain injury can result in loss in physical, emotional, mental, and cognitive learning, problem-solving abilities. Our next example is the spina bifida. This refers to congenital disability at birth where the spinal column does not grow normally, causing parts of the spinal cord to form outside of the body. A portion of the spine outside the body is open or spit outside of the body, inside of a skin sack on the child's back. Typically it results in paralysis or muscle weakness at and below the spot where the spine is open. Spina bifida can result in mobility difficulties, bowel or bladder problems, and bone deformities. Spina bifida unfortunately cannot be reversed, but surgery can be done soon after birth to prevent further injury or infection. Next is one you are almost certainly going to be familiar with arthritis. Arthritis can be defined as chronic episodes of swelling pain, and or disease of the joints. Arthritis often results in low range of movement in joins and high levels of physical fatigue. Although usually effecting just the hands, feet, and wrist, it's important to know that arthritis can be present in any of the joints in the body. Typically, arthritis can be found in older aging adults and can also be passed on through family generations. There are two common forms of arthritis. So while we're here, let's delve into them. Osteoarthritis, the breaking down of cartilage and bones that result in grinding of bone on bone causing pain and inflammation. Rheumatoid arthritis involves a swelling of the lining of the joints from the immune system attacking the protective cartilage that surrounds the joints. Arthritis can be treated through medication, doing surgery, and physical therapy. We looked at common myths and conceptions in the previous lesson relating to human sexuality. Now let's do the same for physical disabilities, often referred to you as differently abled. Myth 1, people with disabilities are brave and courageous. We wish. Adjusting to life with disability is a lifestyle adaptation, not an act of heroism or superhuman courage. We simply want to be seen as people who have a journey through the world a bit differently than those without physical disability. We are simple people who wish to be treated with the same basic respect as able-bodied peers. Myth 2, if somebody is in a wheelchair, they must be parallelized, right? No. As shown in previous slides, there are many forms of physical disability that result in mobility difficulties outside or paraplegia or paralysis. There are cases where people with invisible disabilities or physical conditions use wheelchairs when symptoms such as fatigue, muscle or joint pain and mobility difficulties are especially hard. Some folks with physical disabilities typically voice that the intensity of their symptoms change from day to day. So it's not uncommon for them to have good days without much trouble and soon after had bad days where wheelchair is needed for additional assistance. Myth 3, non-disabled peers are supposed to take care of those with physical disabilities. Actually, a lot of folks with mobility and physical disabilities much prefer to take care of themselves whenever possible. Every individual has their own set of limitations. However, sometimes support from another person is needed to complete tasks and for them to be as comfortable as possible. Myth 4, people who have a physical disability can't have sexual relationships. Truth, just because someone may have a physical limitation does not mean that they cannot be intimate or sexual with another being, nor does it mean that their sexual and reproductive organs don't work. Even many with paralysis have the ability to be sexually active and be in intimate relationships. Individuals can have sensations or a sensory response in the case of motor nerve damage, or motor and sensory nerve damage throughout their body, even if they have nerve damage. There you have it. A run through of some physical disabilities. Obviously, there's much more to it than that. But hopefully this leaves you feeling a bit more comfortable when approaching people with disabilities or when talking about these disabilities with your colleagues, family, or friends. Next, we will go into depth looking at some of the disabilities in more detail. See you on the next one.