This week we'll be spending some time on truly fundamental statistical mechanical concepts that underlie our coverage of statistical thermodynamics. So I want to pause for a moment before diving in to say a little bit about the history of the field as it developed. And, let me begin by offering a quote from Albert Einstein who said, a theory is the more impressive the greater the simplicity of its premises is, the more different kinds of things it relates, and the more extended is its area of applicability Therefore, the deep impression which classical thermodynamics made upon me, it is the only physical theory of universal content concerning which I am convinced that, within the framework of the applicability of its basic concepts, it will never be overthrown. And so that's a fairly strong statement from someone who ought to know pretty well. And an indication of how powerful thermodynamics was viewed to be by physicists in the 19th and 20th centuries. And so thermodynamics, as it was originally developed, what Einstein was referring to as classical thermodynamics. Is simply the study of energy and it's transformations. And a great deal of progress was made on thermodynamics prior to any atomic theory of matter being accepted. So, classical thermodynamics then, encompasses a powerful set of laws, many of which, we will in fact. Develop and encounter and employ, but none offering any kind of molecular insight. Concomitant with the development of an atomic and molecular understanding of matter which did not come easily, there were many people who opposed the very idea of molecules and atoms. So called positivists who felt, if you couldn't see it, you couldn't measure it, and tangibly interact with it, and molecules and atoms were much too small to do that in the 20th century, the 19th century. that you were not allowed to posit them to assume their existence. And Ernst Mock, actually, in Vienna was a. Massive proponent of this ides and fought with [UNKNOWN], who will see in a moment for an enourmos amount of time over the very idea. Now what seems curious to us, we accept it but at the time atoms and molecules were quite controversial. But as our understanding of matter grew with an atomic and molecular theory, statistical thermodynamics was developed to connect the microscopic properties of those species, atoms and molecules, to the already established macroscopic behavior of substances. And so most simply put then, statistical thermodynamics relates the averages of molecular properties to bulk thermodynamic properties like pressure and temperature and enthalpy, things we've talked about already. And many more that we'll see as we continue. And so here is Ludwig Boltzmann. He lived from 1844 to 1906. Committed suicide in 1906. He suffered from bouts of depression and modern scholars imagine that he probably suffered from bipolar disorder. But during his enormously productive career. He developed, many of the key concepts under pinning statistical thermodynamics and the Boltzmann equation s equals k log w is one of the most famous equations of physical chemistry, statistical mechanics what have you. So, in 1877, he wrote that down where S is entropy. A phenomenon that we'll deal with in a few weeks. And the K,B is Boltzmann's constant and you see it here on the slide in units of Joules per Kelvin. And it takes on that particular value. And W stood in German for Wahrscheinlichkeit and it can mean a number of things in fact, in that equation the number of micro-states, the disorder, the degeneracy. That German word actually is well translated as Likelihood, probability, but maybe less probability is the standpoint of mathematical, although obviously, this is a mathematical equation and more in the standpoint of likelihood. But in any case the equation then shows a relationship between the likelihood of a number of things and a concept known as entropy. And the actual value of the Boltzmann constant is such that when multiplied times avogadro's number it gives the universal gas constant. And just to emphasize how important that equation is after Boltzmann death, if you look carefully here, you will see it engraved on the monument that that adorns his grave. And so you know you care a lot about an equation when you take it into eternity with you. So let me discuss a concept that I hope will be tangible enough to not be purely mathematical, and hopefully give us some insight into the statistics that we're about to discuss. And so I'd like you to imagine. A very large water cooler. A water cooler that is nearly infinitely large, arbitrarily large, but not necessarily infinite. And it's a water cooler, it's held at a constant temperature. It's full of bottles, so I will call the temperature t And let's use bottles of 330 milliliters a sort of standard bottle, which contain about 10 to the 25th molecules in about that much volume if we're thinking about water for example. And those molecules are in a bottle and they're interacting with one another. So we know from quantum mechanics, that there's an enormous set of allowed energies associated with all those molecules of accessible energy states. And the energies themselves will be a function in each bottle of N, the number of molecules in the bottle, and V, the volume of the bottle. Alright, so I'll just indicate here an allowed set of energies. And now I want to ask a question. I reach into my infinite water cooler, and I pick out a bottle of water. And the question is, what's the probability that the one I pick out will have a specific energy? So I've indexed it here by I. It'll be in state I. That's what I'll call it. That has energy, E sub I. So that's a worthwhile question to think about. What's the likelihood I get a certain energy. Well, let's use another number, A sub I. A sub I is how many bottles in the ensemble, in the infinite water cooler. Have that energy, E sub i, given fixed number of particles. There's always the same number of molecules in the bottle, and fixed volume, it's always the same-sized bottle. And, in particular, let me think about two different energies, perhaps. So I'd like to know the number of bottles having one energy versus the number of bottles having a different energy. So I'd like to know the ratio of the number of bottles in two different states, j and k. And that'll be given as a function of the energy. Namely, and I'll just write it mathematically here, aj over ak is some function of ej and ek. Now it seems pretty clear that this shouldn't depend on where I set my arbitrary 0 of energy. So there's a ground state perhaps that a bottle could have. I could call that 0 but I could call many things 0. I would expect the ratio between of 1. Set of bottles to a different set of bottles, is independent of the actual number I used to describe the energy. Instead, what ought to be true is, it's got the depend on the difference in energy, the difference in energy is independent of how I assign zero because it drops out when I take the difference between two energies. So I'll just repeat that equation then that the ratio of aj over ak, number of bottles in state j divided number of bottles in state k, some function of the difference between the two energies. Well, let's think about another energy then, in another state of the system. I'll index it by L. So, if I want to know the ratio of J to L and K to L, number of bottles in their respective states. Well, that, I'll just, all I'm doing is changing the index on this equation. So I have AJ over AL as a function of EJ minus EL. And now it's K over L so it's a function of EK minus EL but AJ over AL, is going to be equal to AJ over AK the ratio of J to K times the ratio of K to L. Lets all just replace these two ratios J over K and K over L. By their functions, whatever they are, functions that depend on the difference in energy. But that allows me then to equate. Here;s aj over al. That's this. Function of ej minus el is equal to the product of these 2 functions. So let me move to a new slide so that I can have a little space to do a little more mathematical work. And, let me give these quantities inside the parentheses simpler names. I'll call Ej minus Ek x, I'll call Ek minus El y, well notice that Ej minus El is equal to X plus y. And so, what function is it true for that the function of x plus y is equal to the function of x times the function of y? It's actually the exponential function that has that property. All right, so the product of two exponentials is equal to the exponential of the sum. And that implies that our original number of states for a given energy must be expressed as an exponential. So exponential minus the energy of the state, some factor beta, which is a constant that we haven't determined yet because I want to have the most general equation I can have. Some other constant that may have to do with just how big the water cooler is and notice that these constants c and beta they must be positive constants. Why must beta be positive? Well if beta isn't positive, then as the energy goes higher and higher and higher, remember there is more and more accessible states as you go up we would be getting e to a positive value and just go off to infinity and I don't have an infinite water cooler I've got a really, really large one, but it's not infinite. And, for the same reason, notice that the energy must be bounded from below. That is, once beta is taken to be a positive constant, I can't let my energy go to negative infinity, because then I'll have negative of negative infinity is positive infinity, times a positive number, again, I would explode. I'd go off to an infinite system. And so that's an interesting interesting proof, to some extent, that everything's got a ground state and you can assign a value to that however you like but there must be some ground state. and similarly, c must be positive because we don't have negative numbers of bottles. Alright, well, that's the beginning of some statistics. The important thing to note there is that the ratio of energies that is that is dictated by our statistics is such that there is an exponential dependence on the number of things at a given energy. And the number becomes smaller and smaller as the energy goes up because of the form of that equation. So we're going to work with that a little bit more in the next lecture and that will focus on Boltzmann population.